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INFORMATION FOR THE POPULATION DURING DISASTERS


     
FIRE IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Never leave a lit stove unattended.
Do not keep any dish cloths, paper towels or other objects in its vicinity, as they may catch fire.

Never leave a lit stove unattended. Do not keep any dish cloths, paper towels or other objects in its vicinity, as they may catch fire. Turn household and other electrical appliances off when they are not in use. Also, do not use damaged electrical cables, extension cables, sockets, plugs or switches. During the heating season, the number of chimney fires and fires related to combustion and heating devices increases. Therefore, these devices should be regularly checked and cleaned. Do not store liquefied petroleum gas cylinders in places which are lower than the surrounding area, in sleeping rooms, near open flames or in places where they can be heated to over 40° C. Candles should stand on a solid non-combustible basis. They may never be left to burn unattended. Fire is not a toy. Therefore, teach kids about its dangers. To increase security in the household, install fire alarms, carbon monoxide alarms and fire extinguishers. If there is fire in a dwelling and you cannot extinguish it yourself, call the 112 emergency phone number.

     
EVACUATION Evacuation must be planned well in advance. Keep escape routes and emergency exits free and unobstructed.

Evacuation is a withdrawal from a building to a safe place. It must be planned well in advance. Always include people who cannot evacuate by themselves and need assistance. Escape routes and emergency exits must be free and unobstructed. Do not place any boxes, cabinets, devices, etc. on escape routes.

If you cannot contain or put out a fire in a building with improvised extinguishing means, try to withdraw from the area as soon as possible and gather at an assembly point. Before opening the door, touch it with the back of your hand. If it is warm, do not open it as it is likely that there is fire on the other side. If there is a lot of smoke, crawl on the floor along the walls. Cover your mouth and nose with a wet handkerchief or cloth. Never come back into the room to take documents or other valuables. If fire catches your clothes, lie down and roll on the ground until the fire is out. A flame on the person caught by fire can also be suppressed with a blanket, coat, or a similar object.

If you are unable to leave the room, call 112. If the smoke is spreading into the room through openings in the door, try to fill them with wet towels, bedclothes or other materials to prevent the spreading of smoke into the room.

     
EXTINGUISHING FIRE For initial fire-fighting, you can use devices and improvised extinguishing means, such as a fire extinguisher, pot lid, fire blanket, bucket of water, garden hose, sand, soil ...

For initial fire-fighting, you can use devices and improvised extinguishing means, such as a fire extinguisher, pot lid, fire blanket, bucket of water, garden hose, sand, soil and similar things. There are also built-in fire-extinguishing systems which operate automatically and put out or at least control the fire even in the absence of a user.

To put out initial fires in a proper and effective way, you need to know which object caught fire and which device (e.g. extinguisher), extinguishing means (e.g. fire blanket, lid) or extinguishing agent (e.g. water, dust) can put out the fire in a most effective and safe manner. Combustible substances are categorised in fire classes which are identified by letters A, B, C, D and F.

Only maintained fire extinguishers work properly. Therefore, they must be regularly maintained, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Maintenance and refilling can only be performed by authorised persons. It is recommended that fire extinguishers are also installed in vehicles.

     
WILDFIRE If you burn materials outdoors, the burning site must be surrounded with a non-combustible material.

If you burn materials outdoors, the burning site must be surrounded with a non-combustible material, and the area of at least one metre from the outer edge of the burning site must be cleared of all combustible substances. The burning site must be controlled at all times. When burning is finished, the fire must be completely extinguished. At an average wind speed of over 20 km/h or with gusts that are stronger than 40 km/h, burning is not allowed and should be immediately stopped. It is obligatory to obey prohibitions on burning in periods when a high or very high fire risk for a certain area is declared.

     
CARBON MONOXIDE Typical first signs of poisoning with carbon monoxide are headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, impaired vision, staggering walk and drowsiness.

Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas which cannot be detected by the senses. It is combustible and toxic. It is produced during incomplete combustion in furnaces using solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, in gas heaters and during the operation of petrol and diesel engines (power generators, chainsaws, cars, etc.). The main preventive measures are regular inspection and cleaning of chimneys, vents and combustion devices, and the installation of fresh air inlets and carbon monoxide alarms. Do not use devices with internal combustion engines indoors.

Typical first signs of poisoning with carbon monoxide are headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, impaired vision, staggering walk and drowsiness. If you notice those signs, leave the area immediately and call 112 for emergency medical assistance.

     
FLOOD Familiarize yourself with flood risk in the area where you live.

Before a flood happens, familiarize yourself with flood risk in the area where you live. Prepare supplies of drinking water, canned food, essential medicines, first-aid kit, documents, battery-powered radio, flashlight, and other similar things.

Upon the forecast of a flood, pay attention to the rising of water in the area and follow weather forecasts and warnings. Remove movable property and livestock from the low areas and retreat to higher-lying places. Use flood bags to prevent the ingress of water into the building.

During a flood, withdraw to a higher floor or to a higher-lying place. Do not cross the flooded areas, neither on foot not in a vehicle, and keep away from river banks.

After the flood, clean items that have been in contact with flood water, and check the condition of the building and damage. Do not eat food which has been in contact with water. Before reconnecting electrical equipment and wiring, have it checked by an expert.

     
LANDSLIDE Risk of landslides can be increased after a heavy rain, earthquake or windfall.

Risk of landslides can be increased after a heavy rain, earthquake or windfall. The probability of their occurrence is high on steep slopes, in places where vegetation has been removed, and on cultivated and irrigated slopes. Inadequate activities affecting such slopes further increase the probability of the occurrence of landslides. In order to detect an impending landslide in a timely manner, it is important to constantly observe the area.

In areas which are prone to landslides, pay attention to signs, such as hummocky ground, subsidence, increased sogginess, ground surface cracks and displacement, cracks on buildings, unusual sounds (for example, the cracking of trees) and other dim sounds of a gradually increasing volume. If you notice these signs, call 112 and leave the danger area.

     
SAFE SWIMMING The possibility of drowning can be minimized or prevented by complying with certain rules.

The possibility of drowning can be minimized or prevented by complying with certain rules. Do not enter water if you feel unwell, have a full or empty stomach, or if you are under the influence of alcohol. Before going in the water, cool down to an appropriate level. Never jump in murky or shallow water. Always check the depth before jumping. Do not overestimate your abilities and swimming skills. Never leave children unattended. Keep in mind the weather conditions.

In swimming pools and proper natural swimming areas, comply with the rules of the pool or area and instructions of lifeguards, and obey warning signs for bathers. Do not swim outside the marked swimming area.

Never swim in water reservoirs, near pumping areas or in other dangerous locations. Avoid strong currents or whirlpools. If you get into trouble, stay calm and composed. Wave your hand and shout for help.

If you notice that someone is drowning, help them to the best of your abilities and skills. If you think that your assistance could compromise your own safety or the safety of others, immediately call the number 112.

     
ICY SURFACES Before stepping on a frozen water surface, check the thickness of the ice and its load-bearing capacity.

Before stepping on a frozen water surface, check the thickness of the ice and its load-bearing capacity. If the ice does not break upon a strong impact of a foot, pointed stick or hammer, it is safe enough and can bear load. However, keep in mind that no ice can guarantee a hundred-percent safety.

If the ice around you cracks in concentric circles, it carries too much load and will begin to submerge. Move away as soon as possible.

If the ice beneath you gives way, try to remain calm and composed. Extend your arms and shout for help. If you manage to climb on ice, do not stand up immediately, but roll your body away from the hole several times, as otherwise the ice may break again.

When helping a person beneath which the ice has collapsed, approach them lying on the ground. You can pull them out using a rope, stick, piece of clothing, or ski. In any case, call 112 immediately.

When a person remains in cold water for a long time, they rapidly develop hypothermia. Until the arrival of emergency personnel, put them in dry clothing or wrap them in a blanket.

     
STORM To avoid the consequences of a storm, regularly maintain the building and its surroundings.

To avoid the consequences of a storm, regularly maintain the building and its surroundings. Consider the use of roofing materials that are resistant to strong winds and hail, and the installation of lightning protection. Acquire a protective foil to protect a damaged roof.

When noticing an approaching storm, follow weather forecasts and comply with the instructions of the competent services. Secure or remove objects that can be carried away by wind, washed away by water or damaged by hail. Close windows, doors and shutters and lower the rolling shutters and Venetian blinds. Turn off and unplug electrical appliances. Move vehicles away from watercourses, trees, etc. Take care of pets, too.

During the storm, find shelter in the building. If you are outdoors, avoid the proximity of tall buildings, trees, electricity poles, metal objects and similar things. Watch out for any items that are carried in the air by the wind. In the proximity of watercourses, flooding can occur. Notice any creeping soil and rock. Adapt your driving style to the conditions on the road.

After the storm, check the condition of the building and its surroundings, and repair potential damage as soon as possible. Cover a damaged roof with a protective foil. When using drinking water, follow the instructions of the responsible services.

     
HEAT If it is hot, eat light food and drink plenty of fluids. Wear light and airy clothes in bright colours. Avoid increased physical exertion.

If it is hot, eat light food and drink plenty of fluids. Wear light and airy clothes in bright colours. Avoid increased physical exertion. In the morning, let fresh air in the rooms. During the day, shutter the windows to prevent the heating of rooms. Use air conditioning. Provide domestic animals, both in stalls and on pastures as well as in homes, with sufficient drinking water and shade.

Before starting a journey, let fresh and cool air in the vehicle. Never leave children and pets alone in a closed vehicle. Start longer journeys early in the morning or late in the evening. During the journey, stop several times and do something to feel fresh again.

During long periods of hot and dry weather, wildfire risk tends to increase.

During a heat wave and drought, water consumption increases, whereas the quantity of water in water resources gradually decreases. This can reduce the supply of drinking water or affect its quality. Carry out measures which have been introduced due to the lack of drinking water.

     
SEVERE COLD Low temperatures can cause traffic problems, difficulties in the supply of electricity and water, and other inconveniences.

Low temperatures can cause traffic problems, difficulties in the supply of electricity and water, and other inconveniences. Wind further intensifies the effects or sensation of cold.

Provide your home with thermal protection in due time to prevent the freezing of water in the plumbing system and arrange a preventive inspection and cleaning of combustion devices and chimneys. Prepare enough heating fuel as well as sand and salt to be spread on icy surfaces, and a shovel or other tools for the removal of snow. Buy winter equipment for vehicles.

When low temperatures are predicted, follow the weather forecast, weather conditions and warnings. Stay in heated rooms. If you need to stay outdoors, wear appropriate clothing. Walk carefully on surfaces which are covered in ice or snow. Make sure that icicles and ice are removed from frozen surfaces and that those surfaces are de-iced.

     
SNOW OR ICE STORM When heavy snowfall or ice storm is predicted, follow the weather forecast, weather conditions and warnings.

Remove dry trees and prune those branches around the building that could break under the weight of snow or ice in due time. Prepare sand and salt for de-icing the surfaces, and a shovel or other tools for snow removal. Be prepared for the fact that there could be long interruptions of electricity supply, which could interrupt or cut off the supply of running water and heating and prevent cooking, lighting, preparation of hot water, and the like.

When heavy snowfall or ice storm is predicted, follow the weather forecast, weather conditions and warnings. During the snowfall, take preventive measures, which include the cleaning of paths and surfaces, removal of snow from the roofs of buildings where necessary and possible, and shaking off of the snow from trees and bushes. Walk carefully on surfaces covered in ice and snow, avoid walking under trees, and do not stand near electrical power lines.

     
STAYING SAFE IN THE MOUNTAINS Walking in the mountains requires appropriate physical and mental fitness as well as equipment.

Walking in the mountains requires appropriate physical and mental fitness as well as equipment. Before the start, learn about the weather conditions, the state of the snow cover and the level of avalanche risk.

In the event of an accident, injury, exhaustion, or if you got lost in the mountains, call the 112 emergency phone number.

     
UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE (UXO) If you discover unexploded ordnance, do not touch, move or even dismantle the object.
Call 112.

Unexploded ordnance is dangerous. If handled improperly, they can explode, causing serious injury or death, major fires or the collapse of buildings.

If you discover unexploded ordnance, do not get scared. Those who are present should peacefully leave the danger area. Prevent access to the object, secure the discovery site and, if possible, put up a warning sign or otherwise warn of the danger. Do not touch, move or even dismantle the object. Do not make fire or use incendiary agents in the vicinity of the discovery site.

Call the 112 or 113 telephone number as soon as possible to inform the notification centre or the Police respectively about finding the dangerous item. Give as much information about the finding site and the object as possible.

     
NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL ACCIDENT Appropriate protective measures are indoor sheltering of people and animals, ingestion of potassium iodide pills and evacuation from areas at risk.

Nuclear and radiological accidents are emergencies that pose a direct threat to people and the environment, and require the implementation of protective measures. Upon a nuclear accident, radioactive materials are mostly released into the atmosphere and spread in the form of a radioactive cloud into the wider environment. Radiological accidents require the implementation of protective measures due to increased ionising radiation and contamination by radioactive substances.

Appropriate protective measures are indoor sheltering of people and animals, ingestion of potassium iodide pills and evacuation from areas at risk.